The Development of New Vaccines for Future Generations?

Nowadays, there are many diseases emerging. As a result, there are new types of vaccines being developed to combat these diseases which could potentially occur for future generations.

Bill Gates has collaborated with Google co-founder Larry Page, to allocate funding for the development of a universal flu vaccine.

Although, there were attempts to create a universal vaccine which combats all types of flu, Bill Gates has questioned scientists to explore other avenues. He requested them to create a vaccine which will combat current and emerging forms of diseases for three to five years.

The deadliest flu pandemic happened 100 years ago. Since then, there were numerous flu pandemics which killed almost 18,000 people in 2009. This is estimated to reach more than 284,000.

Bill Gates declared at the end of April “This should concern us all, because if history has taught us anything, it’s that there will be another deadly global pandemic”.

Despite the ability of annual flu vaccination to save lives, it is ineffective compared to other vaccines. Flu vaccines are roughly speaking 40% to 60% successful in contrast to similar models of MDR, which achieved a high 97% rate. This is due to the fast alteration of flu variations which develops and manufactures new vaccines over time.

Developing vaccines towards flu is very difficult to determine. Scientists now must encounter several challenging diseases and conditions than ever before, which consists of malaria, cancer, AIDs and Alzheimer’s. Some diseases which consist of Zika and Ebola can spread quicker than we can develop new vaccines.

There are a few new developments in vaccines.
A New Type of Vaccine

There are more innovative ways to manufacturing new vaccines in demand, which consists of implementing more effective techniques of vaccine propagation.

For example, cell-based flu vaccines have been recognized as a substitute to traditional egg-based vaccines. These vaccines are quicker and easier to manufacture to address issues associated with egg allergies. Please refer to for our previous Industry blog post on cell-based flu vaccine.

Egg-based flu vaccines have been condemned for its incompetency for many reasons, which includes post antibody-antigen binding affinity.

Live recombinant vaccines employ attenuated viruses (or bacterial strains) as vectors for immunogens which acts as a substitute. Recombinant vaccines are faster to manufacture and more efficient and have very little adverse effects compared to traditional substitutes.

Recombinant and cell-based vaccines are more appropriate to reacting to a pandemic, due to its ability to be manufactured faster.

DNA vaccines are a potential opportunity for R&D development. DNA vaccines remove the DNA which encodes a specific antigen and injects it directly into the muscle or skin.

DNA vaccines are simple to manufacture and deliver long-term immunity with very little adverse effects. They are inexpensive compared to other vaccines and convenient to transport which helps to meet the requirements of those in developing countries.

DNA vaccines have not yet been discovered to create a immune response which is very effective to facilitate further development requirements in this area. Adjuvants support DNS to enter cells or aim it towards particular cells could be suggested to help the efficacy of vaccines.

Investigating New Vaccine Delivery Methods
There are several ways to deliver future vaccines.

Nasal sprays have been implemented as a pain-free way to distribute the flu vaccine to children and introduce other pain-free vaccines in the future.

Patches which releases vaccines through a matrix of very small needles are one part of a substitute in this development. They are not required to be distributed by a healthcare professional which makes them ideal for use in remote districts.

Vaccines which overcome the cold-chain issue are required. Numerous vaccines are required to be stored at cold temperatures to stay viable which could cause some issues when delivering them. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull erupted in 2010 resulted in planes being grounded which transported 15 million doses of polio vaccine, which raised concerns regarding the disease spreading.

In-depth Understanding of the Immune System

It is necessary to understand the workings of the immune system, in order to develop new vaccines. Developments in key areas which consists of genomics, bioinformatics and artificial intelligence can support scientists discover the challenges associated with the immune system and create more ground-breaking vaccines.

Even though, developing new vaccines may prove demanding, it has the ability to save millions of lives throughout the world which makes it more meaningful.
This article was written by Inez Cornell from Technology Networks.

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